In Class IX, you have studied about experimental (or empirical) probabilities of events which were based on the results of actual experiments. We discussed an experiment of tossing a coin 1000 times in which the frequencies of the outcomes.In Class IX, you tossed a coin many times and noted the number of times it turned up heads (or tails) (refer to Activities 1 and 2 of Chapter 15). You also noted that as the number of tosses of the coin increased, the experimental probability of getting a head

When we speak of a coin, we assume it to be ‘fair’, that is, it is symmetrical so
that there is no reason for it to come down more often on one side than the other.
We call this property of the coin as being ‘unbiased’. By the phrase ‘random toss’,
we mean that the coin is allowed to fall freely without any bias or interference.

We know, in advance, that the coin can only land in one of two possible ways —
either head up or tail up (we dismiss the possibility of its ‘landing’ on its edge, which
may be possible, for example, if it falls on sand). We can reasonably assume that each
outcome, head or tail, is as likely to occur as the other. We refer to this by saying that
the outcomes head and tail, are equally likely.

In this chapter, you have studied the following points :

1. The difference between experimental probability and theoretical probability.

2. The theoretical (classical) probability of an event E, written as P(E), is defined as

3. The probability of a sure event (or certain event) is 1.

4. The probability of an impossible event is 0.

5. The probability of an event E is a number P(E) such that